2018 RECR 4400: Research Questions

How can a new Nature Retreat Organization Support Existing Outdoor Recreation Organizations in the Community of Salmon Arm? – Jan Allan 

In summary, the research question’s answer of ‘support,’ is through the ‘Land Use’ of the Nature Retreat’s acreage; for the Shuswap Outdoor Learning Foundation and the Shuswap Trail Alliance, to run their; learning workshops, camps for all ages, and for youth and volunteer training seminars. The raw land offers both organizations an opportunity to hold classes; to have participants help design and work on the land in the trail work; and to participate in learning opportunities of connecting with Nature, land management and governance, as part of their organizational programming structure. When the raw land trail work is completed on the Nature Retreat property, the land can then be an example for other workshops and classes, showing ‘Best Practise’ of Trail Design and Trail Management in private land use. Both of these outdoor organizations can be supported by the ability of the Retreat facility to hold planned workshops or other venues they may require. The most prominent support discovered though was the interactive support the Nature Retreat offered the organizations; a critical view point outside of their own, which held great value to them. External viewpoint and expertise the researcher had, could be utilized by in helping to development the Shuswap Outdoor Learning Foundation’s Strategic Five Year Plan. The Shuswap Trail Alliance felt that the Researcher’s involvement at their regional Roundtable Group discussions; could offer a new point of perspective.  This will help the community of Salmon Arm a great deal as the community needs such work force, in driving to make a difference in the health of the environment and the health and well-being of its people; in being more connected to Nature. It will also lay more groundwork to the field of outdoor recreation by offering operational and facility land use examples that others can adopt; to build capacity in Trail and outdoor experience inventory for this community.

How can people become more engaged in the natural landscapes available at the Squamish Estuary? What demographic would be most interested in soft-adventure programs? - Paula Hoover

The story of the Squamish Estuary is embedded in its landscape.

In order to answer this question I looked at research assistant professor Robin Reid at Thompson Rivers University calls place-based tourism. This type of tourism describes stories embedded in local landscapes. As I said in my paper, when we look out into the landscape available at the Squamish Estuary we see examples of both natural and man-made assets. These assets tell a story. At the Estuary we see recreational, conservation, industrial and transportation uses of landscape and we contemplate our own arrangement to these contexts.

Also, there are bio-services available to us that the natural biodiversity of the Estuary delivers by way of flood protection and air filtration. When we are aware of receiving these services we also engage landscape.

To answer the demographic question I found research that drew characteristic compatibility of soft-adventure opportunity and baby-boomers together. Characteristics like sense of connection, reinvigorate life as they know it, new ways of thinking and perceiving, perception of adventure, safety within the activity, perception of the environment as being engaging and interesting.

My concluding paragraph in my major paper sums it up well:

We respond to nature, because we are a part of it, it is in us, it is around us, it is showing us our mistakes and teaching us new methods for engagement. In this way we are our own version of place-based stories that demonstrate how we respond to nature, where we seek connection to define and understand our own arrangement to nature and of our place within it. Natural landscape is providing us with soft-adventure opportunities if we are mindful of its continued conversation with us. We can use the environment at the Squamish Estuary to probe this conversation more by looking at the many examples of landscape demonstrated representing culture, recreation, conservation, industry and transportation.

What criteria does the West End Seniors’ Network use to determine if their recreation programs contribute to the successful aging process of seniors in the West End of Vancouver? - Jennifer Sine

Throughout my paper I provided a lot of information on successful aging and seniors programming. However, it was not until I completed my formal interviews that I was able to fully answer this question. In reading over all my interviews with the WESN staff, I was able to find a common criteria that they agreed they all consider when they are programming in their respective portfolios. The criteria was that they all ensure that their members can have a say in the programs being offered and that they all have a choice in which programs they want to take. This was very important to the team in that, if seniors are able to have a say in the programming they will gain a greater connection to the community which will add to their successful aging process. Also, by allowing their members to pick and choose which programs they want, it gives their members a sense of control in their life. As seniors age they tend to lose control of a number of aspects in their life so by giving them this options, WESN is leading their members into successful aging by letting them know that it is still their life and that they can still take control of how they want to live this stage in their life.

How can an established community-based organization like the Roundhouse Community Arts and Recreation Centre attract adults to volunteering and how can community-based organizations engage these adults to be long term volunteers? - Laura MacKay

The research findings proved that there has been a decline in volunteering over the past year. In Canada 66% of people aged 15-19 volunteer, yet only 43% of people 20-64 years of age volunteer (Government of Canada Statistics, 2016). This stat is sad to see when as adults we should know and understand the value of volunteering.  At the Roundhouse volunteers are utilized for duties such as ushering during performances, leading fitness or sport classes, office tasks and educating patrons on the West Coast Rail Association and Engine 375 which is on display at the Roundhouse. As you can see, volunteers are very important to the Roundhouse. There are many benefits for the volunteers ranging from improved mental, physical, and social well-being (McDougle, Handy, Konrath, & Walk, 2013; Piliavan & Siegal, 2007) improved self-esteem, overall happiness and increased life satisfaction (Morrow-Howell, Hinterlong, Rozario, & Tang, 2003; Musick & Wilson, 2003; Borgonovi, 2008). Other benefits for the volunteers are that they can acquire skills sets such as people management, teaching abilities and communication techniques.  As well they can gain knowledge of current social or political issues or about a topic they previously knew nothing about (Jenkinson, et al., 2013). These skills that they have learned can be used to gain employment or expand their professional network (Bussell & Forbes, 2001; Hamp, 2014). These are all reasons that should be attracting adults to volunteering. According to Allen (2006), one problem of volunteer retention may not be the volunteers losing interest or not having enough time, but by the management styles used by the organizations; that there actually are enough people if they are put in the correct job and are left to do their work. Looking at how the volunteers are being managed and providing them autonomy in their volunteering can increase the lifespan of a volunteer. Connecting to this idea is the concept of using the empowerment theory.  According to Perkins and Zimmerman (1995), the process of the empowerment theory can “include collective decision making and shared leadership” (p.570). Empowerment theory would increase the level of autonomy and make volunteers feel like they are a part of the organization and in turn make them want to stay long term. Another popular trend in the research for retaining volunteers is creating “a sense of belonging, the need for affiliation, gaining prestige or self-esteem, or a way of making friends is evident in a variety of volunteering contexts” (Bussell & Forbes, 2001, p. 10). The idea of creating a space where the volunteer feels welcomed and valued is important to keep them returning. Along the lines of creating a sense of belonging it was noted in the research that there are many positive benefits that the organization can offer to new immigrants to an area in helping them find a sense of belonging.  British Columbia saw a net migration of 29,226 international adults between 2015-2016 (Ministry of Technology, 2017). “The benefits of volunteering include the enhancement of social and human capital, which provides a stepping stone for the integration of immigrants into the host society” (Handy & Greenspan, 2008). British Columbia currently welcomes approximately 29,000 people per year, this is an opportunity to attract adults to volunteering. In a study conducted by Guo (2014) showed finding that the act of volunteering can be a powerful source of informal learning for new residents to a community. “Through volunteering, Chinese immigrants in this study learned language, skills and knowledge needed by new citizens for their integration into Canadian society” (Guo, 2014). Many new immigrants to look to school or education to try to lean English which is wonderful, but providing an opportunity outside the classroom, such as volunteering to practice their English skills benefits the student greatly (Dudley, 2007).  Ways in which community-based organizations can attract volunteers is by creating a sense of belonging.  They can also seeking out recent immigrants to the area who are hoping to gain, skills or work experience in Canada. They can also use Volunteer Search Websites to expand their current search area.

What benefits do people derive from participating in Serous Leisure? And how do people engage in Serous Leisure at the Creekside Community Recreation Centre? - Kaleb Corbin

To answer the second part of my RQ is that there are lots of way people can engage in serious leisure at Creekside. One is through playing pickle ball, bridge, and Mah-jong, another is by joining the gardening club and becoming a member of the community garden at the Creekside Community Recreation Centre. As for the first part of the question...the benefits of serious leisure are skill development, casual leisure or activities become hobbies for people and volunteering. Another benefit is the relationships that are built from participating in serious leisure with the other people who are engaging in the same activity. 

How can the Britannia Community Schools Team/ MoreSports enhance their outreach and inclusiveness to children with adapted learning? - Garett Ling-Lee

In summary, I believe the organizations are able to determine their outreach and inclusive strategies through their own ability to assess the community and the participants. Through assessment and community understanding, programmers and professionals are able to determine needs and focuses on children and build recreational opportunities through participant requirements. As well, recreational professionals are able to reach out to the community through planning and partnership services and contracting. The many assisting partnerships are able to provide grants and funding toward the success and nature of the programs. Through planning, we are also able to determine the equipment needs and resources for specialized programs which provide children with the tools and assistance they need in order to fully participate. In determining the best spaces for programs, it is important to provide adaptive facility amenities and resources in providing children with formidable spaces to participate in. Moreover, through assessments and resourcing, recreational professionals are able to hire specialized workers and behavior interventionists to assist children in participating in activities and events. As well, there are transportation efforts that help families and organizations drive their children to community centers and programs in a safe, affordable and conducive manner. Finally, it is important to be able to communicate and reach out to families with children with disabilities to encourage community participation and independence by making sure they are included in activities and programs.

How can the City of Edmonton better support event organizers in assessing, planning for and managing potential event risk? - Cheryl Taylor

A literature review, focusing on how to assess, plan for and manage special event risk, emphasized the importance of preparing an event emergency action plan, regardless of the size, scope and scale of the event.  Assessing risk includes identifying the various elements of risk that an event can have and determining the likelihood that it will occur.  Planning for event risk entails taking each identified risk element and writing an event emergency action plan that describes how event staff and volunteers will respond to each element of risk should it occur.  This is achieved by training staff and volunteers to manage event risk through preventing, reducing, removing or managing the potential risk.  Managing event risk necessitates the implementation of, and adherence to, established event rules, regulations, policies and procedures that should be followed to minimize the potential for risk to occur.  The common theme of all primary research data collected indicated that the City of Edmonton should update and replace the online resources available, and would benefit from developing and implementing an event emergency action plan checklist and template for event organize use.  It was recommended that the resulting plan should be adaptable based on the size, scope and scale of the event or that different templates be created for smaller, medium and large event use. While not all risks can be planned for, most can be anticipated and managed.  An event emergency action plan helps event organizers achieve this objective.

How important is unstructured play in community recreational programming, and how does West Vancouver foster this play in its offerings? - Shannon Morrison

Research of literature shows confirmation that unstructured play, also referred to as free play, has declined over the last number of decades. In some cases, free play is diminishing from the school system to be replaced with a further stress on academics (Ginsburg, 2007).  The literature review has proven that free play is in fact important in the growth and development of children and that this also carries into adolescents and adulthood. Literature also speaks to the correlation between free play and mental health in adolescents (Gray, 2011).  Secondary research points to possible living environments, overstructured lifestyles and technology as contributing factors to the decline, while primary research points to barriers such as demographics, culture and perception of free play as it pertains to recreational programs.   There is a gap in research findings between the importance of free play and the design of recreational programs which leads to further primary research methods with the support of the District of West Vancouver Community Services.  Methods of formal interviews with recreation professionals, content analysis and observation were conducted using West Vancouver’s recreational program offerings.  In some areas of West Vancouver’s recreation programs, unstructured free play is evident.  To fully answer the research question How important is unstructured play in community recreational programming, and how does West Vancouver foster this play in its offerings?  It is evident through research and literature that unstructured play is important.  It is also clear that program leaders, coordinators and supervisors at the West Vancouver Community Centres have a shared understanding that unstructured play is important and should be incorporated in certain areas of community recreational programming.  West Vancouver Community Services fosters this play in a number of their offerings, primarily through their childminding services and many of their longer day programs and summer camp offerings. Through the recommendations in the report, there are identified areas that West Vancouver Community Services can make to further advocate and promote awareness of free play to it’s community and participants.  This also connects to the Districts Vision to “Inspire excellence and lead by example.” (West Vancouver, n.d.)

What are the benefits and challenges of Private Operators managing community arenas in partnership with the City of Maple Ridge? - Korine Hawsby

“Public private partnerships (P3’s) are arrangements between government and private sector entities for the purpose of providing public infrastructure, community facilities and related services” (Ministry of Municipal Affairs, 1999, p. 5). The research question aims to bring awareness to the complexities of the relationship between the Private Operator and the City of Maple Ridge, and the stakeholders that are involved by association. This information can then be utilized to assist all stakeholders in, “extending their understanding of their situation and thus in resolving problems that confront them” (Blackshaw, 2010, p. 50).  Benefits of the partnership between the Private Operator of Planet Ice Maple Ridge and the City of Maple Ridge that were identified through the research include: cost savings, risk sharing, expertise and specialization of the private partner, flexibility in decision making, and efficiency in operations. Challenges that were identified through the research are related to individual philosophies, increased user costs or fees, lack of communication and consultation, policies and procedures that are perceived by minor sport Executives to favor the Private Operator, and scheduling details between the Private Operator and the City.  The lack of significant challenges suggests that the partnership between the Private Operator and the City of Maple Ridge is functioning and that both partners have the best interest of the community in their sights. In line with the Vision Statement of the City of Maple Ridge, the partnership is a living example of an “innovative approach to dealing with intractable challenges” (City of Maple Ridge Vision 2025, n.d.). The information gained from the research can be shared and referenced by other municipalities considering similar models for their community facilities.

What initiatives can the City of Barrie's recreation programming staff implement to foster positive youth development, and how will these initiatives develop stronger connections with youth in the community?- Melissa Jabobi

Although I don't feel as though the RQ is fully answered, because of the vast amount of research still needed in positive youth development, the City of Barrie is extremely fortunate in that their foundation has already been somewhat established to promote youth development. The primary initiative that should be implemented is the development of a framework to use as reference, as I think should be true for any youth organization; this will give them the basis for their vision of the Holly Youth Centre and will encourage them to only accept projects/partners that align with that vision. The City should also place their focus on creating a balance between structured and unstructured programming to strengthen the benefits of youth voice within the Centre - by offering choices but still including youth in the decision-making process, it ensures that the program satisfies both parties' objectives. Other initiatives include social media interaction and better utilizing the Centre's physical space to connect with youth in creative, positive and realistic ways. These initiatives will help develop stronger connections because they continue to build on the empowerment of youth and their voices throughout the Centre, as well as challenge, inspire and uplift them to become a more important role in their community.

What revenue opportunities are available to Hockey Alberta, and what are the benefits and challenges of revenue diversification? - Allison Marriott

Revenue streams are derived from public, private and joint sources (Sawyer, 2004) and contribute to an organization’s donative, earned and investment income (Carroll & Stater, 2009). Revenue diversification can be a beneficial strategy for non-profit organizations in achieving financial stability and reduced revenue volatility by finding a balance between donative, earned, and investment income sources (Carroll & Stater, 2009; Wicker & Breuer, 2014; Wicker, Feiler & Breuer, 2013). While revenue diversification can prevent reduced costs and financial growth, it can be addressed through resource allocation (Carroll & Stater, 2009; Frumkin & Keating, 2011). Sponsorship adds value but requires established rewards and servicing standards to be successful (McCarville & Copeland, 1994; O’Reilly & Horning, 2013). Commercialization is a means to increase earned income and can improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency, increase financial stability and reduce reliance on donative income. Commercialization does, however, have the potential to create fee dependency, mission displacement, clientele shifts, and loss of identity and purpose (Bosscher, 2009; Hardwick, 2006).

A non-profit sport organization’s financial health is contingent on finding a balance between revenue diversification and income concentration (Frumkin & Keating, 2011). Hockey Alberta has been found to currently maintain a revenue portfolio that is 75% diversified, which signifies that the organization already maintains a diversified revenue portfolio but could enhance their diversification strategy. “The higher the level of revenue diversification in the organization, the higher the total revenues and the profit of the organization, and the more likely the organization to make investments” (Wicker & Breuer, 2014, p. 12), therefore, Hockey Alberta is encouraged to focus on increasing donative and earned income through sponsorships, commercial activity and hosting events in order to “build their growth potential through raising surplus revenue for investments and service expansions necessary for growth opportunities” (Carroll & Stater, 2009, p. 955).

How can Parkgate Community Services Society foster social capital for adults aging into their later senior years? - Jodi Weiderick

Parkgate currently has many seniors programs and services that prioritize social connection, and although they may be advertised as a walking group, crafting circle or lunch club, they are all recreational programs developed with the intention of forming connection and friendship. Social connections are what create vibrancy in a community and what foster social capital. Volunteering is one of the most powerful forms of creating connections and Parkgate offers plenty of volunteer opportunities to build community connection and provide meaningful ways of giving back. Research shows that increased social networks and emotional well-being is gained by volunteering in different capacities (Marrow-Howell, et al., 2003).  Parkgate Seniors Services looks to empower those individuals in the community who are already vested in the threads of the community’s social capital by providing them with resources to engage new comers, newly retired individuals and others who are not already participating in social and recreational services at the centre. This best practice provides mentorship through peer leadership and allows for trust building, social capital bridging and sustainability of programs and services. Parkgate has the opportunity to further foster social capital for those seniors who are considered “isolated.” Seniors outreach does not necessarily need to be done by paid employees of Parkgate as staff resources are limited. Training key volunteers and identified peer leaders in the community will build social connection capacity within the Parkgate area. Making the issue of social capital a civic engaged priority will build community accountability that will provide a more sustainable momentum beyond what Parkgate can deliver on solely through staff resources. These exemplary community citizens need to be given education and training around the issues that isolated seniors are dealing with, and the tools and resources to provide effective outreach. These role models have the opportunity to use the existing recreation and social services as way to foster new social connections.

How is the City of Edmonton remaining current regarding recreation opportunities offered to the public within aquatics? - Brock Hoyt

The City of Edmonton has several different processes and systems at play that act to keep the organization current when it comes to aquatic recreation opportunities offered to the public. One of those systems is the Aquatic Strategies section, who's responsibility it is to research and implement various innovations when it comes to aquatics, specifically increasing overall aquatic safety. One of the innovations is introducing an underwater camera system that helps to supplement and assist lifeguards. This advanced technology makes use of a smart-like watch, which will alert lifeguards to changes within the aquatic environment, and will provide a visual to the lifeguard (or other staff member) wearing the watch to the specific area, allowing the individual to identify whether it is an emergency or if it's just a person who stopped, for example to fix their goggles. The City of Edmonton is also a trendsetter when it comes to creating specific training for Lifeguards, that has been adopted and is now being utilized by the Lifesaving program. These programs are the Prevention, Scanning, and Recognition course, which helps to supplement National Lifeguard training, and the Lifeguard Fitness Skills certification program. The City of Edmonton also has implemented various programming through the Aquatic Experiences and Public Education section of the organization. Some of these programs are Yoga Paddleboard and Aquamat Fit. There's also a unique aquatic program called the Nikaniw Indigenous Youth Leadership Program, which has partnered with local Indigenous Elders to provide Indigenous Youth with aquatic leadership certifications, life skills, and cultural specific program from the Elders. Another unique program is the Newcomer's Program, which targets new Canadians, providing them with a full facility tour that includes demonstrations on how to use lockers, take proper showers, and teaches them how to find facility specific information such as pool basin depths. Another innovation found within the City of Edmonton is their Water Safety Ambassador employees, who supplement lifeguards by engaging with the public and providing as much facility specific information as possible. They also go over city wide policies such as the "under 8 rule", swim test policy, and providing information such who should wear a PFD and how to properly fit one. It was found from the primary research that was conducted that several of the interviewees believed that the City of Edmonton should pilot their innovative programming at more facilities, rather than just at certain facilities. This is due to the different target markets that each facility has due to different demographics within the local area surrounding each facility.

The City of Edmonton also has a Joint User Agreement with the Edmonton Public and the Catholic School systems. This agreement allows the school systems to utilize city operated facilities as a rental for a fraction of the cost. During the Fall/Winter, often the programming is 'teacher led'. However, during the Spring, the City of Edmonton will also provide swim instructors and thus offer either the red cross learn to swim program, or the swim to survive program. While transportation can still act as a barrier, many of the city operated facilities have been purposefully constructed to be within proximity of schools.

One area that City of Edmonton could improve upon is their facility development and construction. The City of Edmonton is one of the fastest growing cities in Canada, yet has seen several setbacks when it comes to constructing new facilities, and/or current facility expansion. Because of these setbacks, aquatic services are limited when looking at those specific geographical areas. It should be noted that while some facility developments have received setbacks, other projects have been completed. These projects include The Meadows, Clareview, and Terwillegar Community Recreation Centre.

Furthermore, while the City of Edmonton has created specific programs and services for New Canadians, there is an overall lack of frontline staff training in terms of diversity, inclusion, and customer service. On one hand, the organization is increasing accessibility of their facilities through public education and opportunity through the above mentioned programs, yet creates barriers when it comes to training for swim instructors and lifeguards.

Overall, the City of Edmonton has done more than just maintain the status quo when it comes to aquatic recreation. They are continuously research new ideas, and even creating their own innovations. There are plans in place to continue to develop and create new facilities to meet the needs of a fast growing city. They are also in the process of expanding some of the smaller leisure centres, even if some have received setbacks.

The importance of children 6-12 years old to participate in physical literacy programs and how the False Creek Community Centre communicates the importance of physical literacy in their children’s programming? - Garrett Wong

It is important for children between the ages of 6-12 years old to participate in physical literacy programs. These programs provide more than just physical skills but a wealth of benefits. People that are physically literate are able to move with confidence and are able to carry that confidence over to different aspects of their lives. Physical literacy is a dynamic concept that has evolved over time and is becoming more and more important for children to participate in physical literacy programs. These programs create a foundation of skills that allow children to specialize in any physical activity. When a child has mastered the ABC's (agility, balance and coordination) of physical literacy, they are able to focus on any physical activity because all activities incorporate the ABC's. The research compiled revealed that physical literacy programs are important for children to participate in and the False Creek Community Centre is in the early stages of adding more physical literacy programs to their centre as the centre heavily relies on free play through their parent and tot play gym and their outdoor playground. The Fall season (Sept-Dec) is when the False Community Centre looks to add new physical literacy programming for children and it will be promoted to their local elementary schools.

How does participation in outdoor recreation lead to the emotional and physical health of seniors ages 65+ in the Newton Town Centre? - Nicola Basi

My research has shown me that outdoor recreation activities can improve cardiovascular health, strengthen muscles and bones, reduce blood pressure which contribute to strong physical health. In additions the physical health benefits, outdoor recreation provides significant emotional health benefits such as improved sleeping patterns, reduce stress and can help increase confidence. Specifically in Newton there are outdoor programs and services in place such as outdoor events and programs, fitness equipment and ensuring that outdoor spaces are welcoming for seniors and contribute to keeping senior engaged in outdoor recreation. This helps seniors in the community maintain strong physical and emotional health.

What effects does a change in facility have on established activity groups within a seniors (55+) recreational facility, and how can recreation practitioners help established activity groups through the moving process? - Laranda MacDonald

The research was sparked by the planned relocation of the current City of Richmond’s senior’s facility, Minoru Place Activity Centre, which is operated in partnership with the Minoru Seniors Society.  The move will take place mid-year 2018, and staff are interested in learning strategies to ensure a smooth transition to the new facility that will be called Minoru Centre for Active Living.  From this research it was found that during a moving process, there needs to be a sense of familiarity in the new facility.  This will encourage continued participation.  Another finding was established community groups will encourage continued attendance after the facility move.  Strategizing how to eliminate barriers to the new facility will be key in the next few months for City of Richmond staff.  For the first part of the question, the effect it can have is either hesitancy or excitement from the individuals in the groups.  Groups can either grow or shrink.  How recreation practitioners guide the process will determine the effects of the move on patrons.  Recreation Practitioners need to keep continuous conversations open with the established activity groups, and allow space for them to ask questions.  By allowing space for questions, staff are able to reduce fear that patrons may be experience, and guide that fear to excitement. Recreation practitioners need to also look at barriers that may exist for seniors such as physical limitations, and address those concerns with the senior stakeholders.

What are the benefits and challenges of risky programming for participants, employees, and the overall program development in Out of School Care programs in the City of Richmond? - Stephanie Reid

Children are spending more time in before and after school care programs than in their family homes.  Out of School Care programs offer a nurturing and safe environment which allows participants to feel secure and open to try new risks in the program. In various recreational programs when participants feel safe, they have a heightened confidence and are more likely to engage in risky programs that challenge them outside of their comfort zone.

The purpose of this study was to provide information on the challenges and benefits of risky programming in recreational settings, which shows that risky play has historical challenges. The challenges presented in this research range from parental concerns and experience of instructors. With adequate training and resources for instructors and parents,  can improve how Out of School Care Programs interact with risky programming and increase the amount of risky play opportunities such as field trips.  Exploring risky play in recreational programs has significant benefits to the development of participant’s skills, employee’s professional development, and the overall program. Although there are many benefits to offering this type of programming, risky play is bruised by the perception of danger. To overcome the stigma placed on risky play in recreation programming, effective communication needs to be clarified in the process of engaging with this form of play. With more advocacies for risky programming, children of future generations will have the right to feel the natural desire to explore the unknown of risk without being judged or stopped. Risky programming will continue to grow in the lives of community members, however, with the support of recreational programs and services can help how this term is perceived that can influence the level of experience.

What factors increase youth and adult female engagement and sense of inclusion in sports and active play, and how does the City of Coquitlam consider those factors in programs? - Lindsay Duncan

This research paper explores the question "What factors increase youth and adult female engagement and sense of inclusion in sports and active play, and how does the City of Coquitlam consider those factors in programs?”.  Both primary and secondary research were conducted. Primary research involved the use of informal interviews with participants from a Professional Wrestling Women’s Try-It, a formal interview with the City of Coquitlam’s Community Services Supervisor, and a content analysis on drop-in sports program participation numbers in the City of Coquitlam. Primary research findings concluded that to new female participants, sports and active play activities are less intimidating in a smaller group with those of similar ability level. Also concluded from primary research was that a women’s only program could be successful in a municipal setting with careful consideration in implementation. Lastly, primary research concluded that currently, youth and adult female participation in drop-in sports activities in the City of Coquitlam is significantly lower than male participation. In literary research for this paper, stronger physical literacy skills, creating a welcoming environment, removing a masculine stigma in sport and active play activities, and being cognizant of reduced time for recreation were all pointed to as methods to increase inclusion and engagement in youth and adult females in sports and active play. Recommendations for the City of Coquitlam include having more female leadership in sport and active play programs, creating more female exclusive registered learn-to programs, creating different skill level drop-in programs, and program female targeted programs at appropriate times.

What are the benefits of youth interacting in nature? How can Purpose Society develop nature-based programs for their current youth outreach clients? - Nikole Rampuri

Nature interactions must take place in a region which is flourished with trees, soil, water and does not have the distractions of technology, city noise or traffic. The life-changing benefits  which come from nature interactions can include significant impacts on mental health issues like depression, stress reduction and anxiety. It provides improvements to youth physical health and is a community orientated activity. All of these benefits would improve the social capital amongst youth and the connections they are able to make with supports, peers and their family members.

The recommendations made would support the research question by both promoting knowledge of nature benefits and would provide a diverse but substantial amount of opportunities for youth of many backgrounds and interests to participate in. The recommendations varied from promoting knowledge about nature effects within the communities to programming visits and activities at local parks and trails. It provides the youth outreach clients a significant amount of benefits at a low risk and the received benefits could change their lives.

What are the benefits of outdoor recreation and how can the City of Richmond's Youth Services Department ensure youth attending their programs and services receive these benefits?  - Brendan Walker

The benefits of outdoor recreation are plenty and include benefits to physical health and mental health. Outdoor recreation has been shown to improve mental health by lowering stress, anxiety and depression.  In terms of physical health, outdoor recreation participation is tied to healthier body weight and prevention of negative health conditions.  Outdoor recreation is also connected to improved resilience, problem solving, self-esteem and the development of leadership and skills in a variety of outdoor recreation activities.  Best practice reviews, interviews, observations and content analysis addressed the second part of the research question. Recommendations are made that outdoor recreation be further emphasized by the cities Youth Service Plan. Emphasis needs to extend beyond the Youth Service Plan and involve further outdoor recreation programs developed by youth programmers. Suggestions for programs include camps, weekly programs and collaborations on weekend long retreats. Collaborations with outside organization would help achieve this.  There is also a need for other departments in the city to emphasis nature at an earlier age, which would help make them comfortable as they enter youth age programs.

How can the YMCA meet their objectives of creating healthy children and families through programs within their recreation centers? - Cidalia Martin

The YMCA must first develop a clear picture of how they envision healthy children and families to look like to strengthen their strategic objective. Adding the component of supporting the overall health of children and families in programs will create strong, more well-rounded children, who are not only physically healthy, but can develop resilience, cope with what life brings them and deal with feelings and emotions. Creating clearly defined YMCA program characteristics to assure quality will improve the experience children and families have in YMCA programs and develop programs that are safe, fun, engaging, more physical and led by well trained, caring and responsible staff that children and families want to participate in and come back to. The addition of new programs that are solely physical based and incorporate the 60-minute physical activity guideline, the outdoors and playing in nature, will keep children and families physical in new and exciting ways and encourage them to participate and get active together! Developing a tool to measure the impact YMCA programs has on the health of children and families will not only allow the YMCA to see the impact of their work, but ensure they are always keeping children and families healthy and programs are playing their part in reaching the objective.

What are the benefits of intergenerational programs for the community, and how can the District of West Vancouver’s Community Services department promote intergenerational connections through its programs? - Michiko Araki

Intergenerational programs have been implemented in many recreational and non-recreational settings due to its proven benefits. Taking part in such programs has shown to reduce stereotyping towards people of different age groups, increase knowledge, culture, and skill sharing, reduce social problems, encourage intergenerational contact and increase social connection and appreciation of other age groups. However, in order to reap these benefits, research has shown that in order to be successful, intergenerational programs need to be mindful of various factors, such as participant interest, resource constraints, and organizational values, among other things. To assist the Community Services department in improving intergenerational connections through its programs, the following were recommended: to create an Intergenerational Initiatives Committee to promote collaboration on implementing intergenerational programs; analyze the fit of potential intergenerational programs by using Ames & Youatt’s Selection Model and assessing interests of participants; plan intergenerational programs or initiatives with a component of the program where third parties can benefit; implementing intergenerational sensitivity training; and using the District’s Situational Analysis document when making a case for implementing intergenerational programs. Overall, these recommendations would allow the District of West Vancouver’s Community Services department to not only implement initiatives to improve intergenerational connections, but to do so wisely by considering a variety of factors when implementing something as complex as an intergenerational program which takes into consideration outcomes and interests of various age groups within the community.

What are similar principles across civic spaces doing to ensure inclusion within the physical environment for the LGBTQI2-S community and why is it important to the recreation community? - Chantelle Judd

The similar principles across civic spaces to ensure inclusion for LGBTQI2-S individuals would be that they are trying. All civic spaces are trying to create a welcoming and inclusive environment for all patrons of their facility. However, as some of the buildings are quite old, having the space to create another change room or washroom for trans-gender neutral individuals to have a space to use as well can be quite difficult. Similarities that were found was updating the signage for washrooms and change rooms to accommodate for all individuals to be able to use them. Avoiding using only “Female” or “Male” only as their signage. What was also found that there are a few recreation facilities within the City of Vancouver that have created some best practices to include these individuals that were found to be great recommendations and guidelines for other cities and recreation facilities to follow.

What barriers do seniors at Mayfair Terrace Retirement Residence face to take part in recreation activities and how can the staff make sure seniors are able to take part? - Heather Corbould

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the literature, methodology and research surrounding Mayfair Terrace Retirement Residence (MTRR) and seniors who face barriers when participating in recreation activities. The question asked in this paper is, ‘What barriers do seniors at Mayfair Terrace Retirement Residence face to take part in recreation activities and how can the staff make sure seniors are able to take part?’

Mayfair Terrace Retirement Residence is located in central Port Coquitlam, British Columbia and is home to 119 seniors. For the purposes of this paper, the term senior is defined as someone who is over the age of 55, as this is the definition that MTRR uses when accepting people into their community. To align with how MTRR sees the residence, instead of using the term facility, they refer to themselves as a community.

Within the literature, there are three major themes that come forward; Barriers to Participation, Benefits to Participation, and Demographics. The fact that 27% of Port Coquitlam’s population are seniors shows the importance of knocking down barriers or finding ways to work around them. To conduct primary research, Formal Interviews, Context Analysis, and Observations from a Special Status were used. Emma Anderson, the lifestyle consultant at Mayfair Terrace Retirement Residence, was interviewed and gave insight into the barriers at play at MTRR. Emma also provided access to policies that MTRR and the managing company, Sienna Senior Living, use when programming activities within the community. As not anyone can walk into the residence and observe programs, special status was obtained and used to view the Gentle Stretch program on March 11, 2018. The City of Coquitlam and Google provided best practice situations that are referenced regarding their reminders for attending classes and working as a team to better each other.

The recommendations in this paper fall under two categories; how to keep the seniors involved in programming, and who to partner with in order to help the seniors, the staff and the residence.